The Surveyor Probe Mk. IV, or Probe, has several abilities for exploring the environment. It has forward and rear facing cameras for taking black-and-white images, a distance indicator, a seismic stability indicator (only of use on Brittle Hollow) and, floodlights.
It can be launched from your suit or from the ship with the right bumper on an Xbox gamepad or the right mouse button on a default PC keyboard and mouse setup.
If the launch button is held down, the power at which the probe launches can be adjusted.
The probe does not launch straight at your crosshair while outside of the spaceship. Instead, it launches a little bit right of the crosshair.
Uses for Exploration
The probe can be used to photograph the Quantum Moon, locking it into it's current position, even if you look away (works the same way on the statue in the Observatory). Can also be used to distract Anglerfish on the Dark Bramble, and check the seismic stability of the Brittle Hollow.